Theology


Plan to end your sabbatical the same way you started it–with a retreat. This will give you an opportunity to reflect on how you have changed. What are some of the practices you want to maintain, albeit in a simpler form, as you return to the marketplace? How can you maintain and strengthen the habits of prayer you have cultivated? Thomas Kelly, in a Testament of Devotion, claims that it is possible to live at two levels simultaneously–that of interior prayerful attentiveness to God and that of external activity, including mental activity. To what extent this is attainable remains to be experienced. Nothing prevents you from repeatedly making a start.

Continue to cultivate attentiveness towards God. Whenever you remember, say a simple word of prayer. Nurture inner silence in your heart. In this way, you are more aware of subtle distracting attractions and can turn away from them before the pull becomes too strong. In the same way, you become aware of little inner promptings of the Spirit: a burden to pray for someone, a task to work on, a request to turn down. In this way you are led to engage the world in your particular sphere of influence, and not be overly anxious about everything else. Over time, you may only need to say one word of the prayer to bring yourself to the posture of attentiveness.

Now, let’s turn to the topic of distractions. There are very many ways to fill our time and spend our lives in this world. Media and entertainment options abound. Electronic devices and the computer beckon us. Set limits and boundaries for these activities so you preserve time for prayer. In order to pray well, we need to prepare to pray. Preparation includes planning regular, unhurried times at a quiet place away from crowds and noise.

Do not be discouraged if life gets too busy and you cannot or forget to pray.Start again, and keep starting again. Over time, the posture of prayer will grow on you. Your life becomes simpler. Some days you will find yourself walking with the Spirit and it happens effortlessly by grace. Keep praying. Maintain the course. Plan your next sabbatical. You will be surprised at the person you’ve become then.

Previous -> Beyond Your Sabbatical: Loving the World

At this point of time in your sabbatical, you have rested, slowed down and exercised your prayer muscles. You are at a good place to view the culture and society you are part of—what the Bible calls the world—more clearly. The lens of your sabbatical helps you focus and be intentional about your participation, involvement, and contribution to the world. Outside of the sabbatical, you will be subject to the loud voices of the world prescribing a way of life that many passively follow. You are called to be in the world, but not part of it. How do you live this out?

Your love of the world is primarily actualized through your daily work and routines. Undergirding your participation in the world is an order of charity within the Kingdom of God. First, you are to love those closest to you—parents and children, spouses and siblings, family and friends. Then your love must extend to the community you live in, your neighbourhood, town or city, state and country and eventually reach out to all humanity, all creatures and all of creation. That is a tall order but you are not called to do everything. You must discern your specific gifts and callings.

You have the unique calling to love those whom only you can love. No one else can be a child to your parents, a sister or brother to your siblings, a father or mother to your child, a husband or wife to your spouse—only you can! This is a totally unique calling to love those closest to you. We love them by cooking that meal, cleaning that spill, doing the laundry, making that phone call, and visiting them.

Then there is the specific calling to love those you encounter in daily life:  your colleagues, neighbours, other commuters and road users, drivers, cyclists, pedestrians, receptionists, servers, cleaners; in other words, the people whom we encounter, the Lazaruses we meet. We treat them with respect, say a prayer for them under our breath, and consider their needs and circumstances of life. One way of doing this is to put yourself in their shoes and learn to experience yourself from their eyes. Normally, when you interact with your neighbour, you react and respond to the other as yourself. In this spiritual practice of loving your neighbour as yourself, you listen, think and feel about the interaction as the other person. This is radical and may seem strange but as you put this into practice, one encounter at a time, one person at a time, you will see both yourself and your neighbour change. Talk to God about your interactions with people. Pray and be pleasantly surprised as grace enters your world, one relationship at a time.

Now we turn from expressions of love to particular persons to the extension of your love to the world. Although you perceive and relate to the world in an abstract way, your love for it can be expressed in very real and tangible ways through your daily work—your vocation. This active love is at times expressed through the training and exercise of specific gifts and through doing work in unique circumstances.

The world sees it differently. It has a hierarchical order of positions or professions and the market economy expects us o be as successful as we can be. This promotes competition resulting in winners and losers. Instead look first to your gifts and passions, then find a place that needs your contribution. This is a different approach that promotes cooperation. After all, everyone cannot be doing the same work. We are called to be stewards of our talents, not to make the most gain, but to do the greatest good. Doing what you are gifted at releases others who are differently gifted to meet the unmet needs. Once you have clarity on your gifts and contribution, you will pay less attention to opportunities that lie outside your calling. You know what you are best at, what good you can do; you also know what you are not good at. God will call others to meet that need.

The world is a fallen place. You may not have the opportunities to discover and develop your gifts, or you may not have the opportunity to exercise your particular gift. Know this however, your love for the world is always manifested through work done with unique love, care, and attention–to the glory of God. So train your natural talents, use them if you can, but always do whatever work is before you with all your heart, giving your very best. In so doing, you are doing good work, good for your soul, good for the world, and that gives glory to God.

Next-> Living Your Sabbatical: Taking Sabbatical Practices Into the World

Previous -> Having Your Sabbatical: Loving Your Neighbour

Over dinner last night, my daughter, a joyful five year old who is full of life, off-handedly said, “I want to die at the age of five and go to heaven.” My son, aged eight, responded, “No, God does not want you in heaven at the age of five just so you can have fun. He wants you to tell other people about Jesus. That is why He wants you to live in this world until you are old.”

Mum said, “We don’t want you to die at the age of five. You’re five right now, and we will miss you.” To which, Daughter replied, “Then let’s all (die and) go to heaven together.”

In case you think this is a holy family, a few days ago, Son was upset that Daughter was talking about him to her friends behind his back. He said, “If I were to die first and go to heaven, I can hear all the lies you tell about me.”

There certainly is some interesting theologizing going on at the dinner table 🙂

Towards a Kingdom Timestyle
by Wan Phek How

In the novel Gulliver’s Travels, the Lilliputians thought Gulliver’s watch was his god, since Gulliver referred to it throughout the day in making decisions about what to do.[1] This astute observation about the importance of the watch was made by Jonathan Swift in the eighteenth century. Neil Postman, a contemporary technology critic, agrees that the invention of the clock is a significant step in humanity’s technological development from mainly agrarian tool-using cultures to industrialized technocracries.[2] The mechanical clocks used in public buildings in the thirteenth century had no minute hands and were used to mark time generally—with variable hours.[3] The length of the “hour,” one-twelfth of daylight time, varied with the seasons until the late fourteenth century.[4]

Cultural historians suggest that the fixed hour was the invention of urban businessmen who wanted to establish a standard work shift regardless of the season; wage labourers were paid by the day and their employers, presumably, wanted to get as full a day’s work as possible.[5] If such was the beginning of the sixty minutes, it is hardly surprising that we use monetary terms to describe our use of time: we “spend” time with friends, “save” time from chores, “give” time to family, and “steal” it from sleep. Since we tend to worship time as we do money, we need to hear the words of Jesus: “No one can serve two masters. . . . You cannot serve both God and Money” (Mt 6:24). Therefore, we should serve God and let money serve us. In the same way, we should not be slaves to time, but should let time serve us as we serve the Kingdom of God.

To do that, we need to start with a biblical understanding of time. Our modern, scientific mindset assumes that time is “out there” as an objective, measurable part of nature. Philosophers argue that clocks do not measure invisible, intangible time but tangible things such as the length of a workday or a sprinter’s speed in the 100 metres.[6] In contrast, the Bible’s approach to time is not scientific, naturalistic, or humanistic—it is God-centric. The birth of time is announced at the very first verse of the Bible: “In the beginning” (Ge 1:1). Before the Beginning, there was nothing; it was time-less. At the Beginning, time was created: God separated light from darkness and marked the days, the seasons, and the years (Gen 1:3-4,14). By resting on the seventh day, God inaugurated the Sabbath and created our seven-day week (Ge 2:2-3). Jesus later said: “The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath” (Mk 2:27). Thus the rhythm of six days of work followed by a day of rest was instituted for the good of humans. From this, we can surmise that time is a gift of God in the same sense that the whole of creation is a gift of God. But that is not all. The larger framework of our time—our days, weeks, seasons, and years—is also a gift from God.[7]

In chapter three of Ecclesiastes, it is written: “There is a time for everything, and a season for every activity under heaven” (Ecc 3:1). In other words, there is an appropriate time for every activity in each of our lives, and this time is appointed to us—it is a gift from God. Whereas the weeks and years were designed for the good of humans generally, the appointed times in our lives were given to each of us individually, specifically, and personally. All of time, its existence, its larger, calendar-type framework, and its personalized timetable of birthdays, anniversaries, and special occasions are all a gift from God.

Time is indeed a precious gift and we try to fill it with as many fruitful activities as we can. Sometimes we feel there is too little time to do all that we have to do. Indeed we question whether God has given us enough time for all that He wants us to do. So it is interesting to note that God stuck with a bunch of ex-slaves for forty years while they wandered around in the desert. He waited for a generation of Israelites to die naturally instead of massacring them and choosing another people group to fulfill His kingdom purposes. During that time, the Israelites lived, got married, and had children. God also gave Moses the desert-time he needed: forty years. Even though the Israelites were in slavery and were crying out for deliverance from the Egyptians, God did not prematurely push Moses into urgent ministry in a great hurry.

Undoubtedly, the man with the greatest mission throughout history was and is Jesus Christ. Yet, from the gospel narratives, Jesus did not act in haste. Rather, His actions were timely. Jesus tarried and was too late to save His friend Lazarus from death, only to work a greater miracle of resurrection (Jn 11:6). Jesus had a notion of appropriate time. When the wine ran out at the wedding in Cana and His mother asked for help, Jesus replied: “Dear woman, why do you involve me? . . . My time has not yet come” (Jn 2:4). When his disciples wanted to go to Jerusalem for the Feast of Tabernacles, Jesus replied, “The right time for me has not yet come” (Jn 7:6). Then, when the time came for Jesus to enter Jerusalem to be crucified, He sent His disciples ahead with the message: “My appointed time is near” (Mt 26:18). Even the demons had a notion of a set time. When Jesus encountered the two demon-possessed men in Gadarenes, the demons shouted: “Have you come here to torture us before the appointed time?” (Mt 8:28-29).

Jesus did not try to bring about His Kingdom before its time. He refused Satan’s offer of a false kingdom (Mt 4:8-10). He turned many would-be disciples away with difficult and at times, offensive sayings (Jn 6:66). When some Pharisees asked for a miraculous sign, Jesus chose not to perform miracles for persuasive purposes (Mt 12:38-39). When the people wanted to make Him king by force, Jesus withdrew to a mountain (Jn 6:15). His closest circle, the twelve disciples, was perplexed by the way Jesus went about His messianic mission—which when compared to the fast-paced, numbers-focussed, result-oriented approach to modern ministry, seems almost leisurely and ludicrously inefficient.

Did Jesus have enough time for his earthly ministry? He was only in active ministry for three years. Then He died, leaving the earthly scene before he could write the gospel according to Jesus Christ. Had he been around longer, Jesus could have given the church the definitive organizational model and established a solid theological foundation for all Christians. He could have done so much more instead of leaving the Mission to a floundering flock of bumbling disciples, leading to two millennia of divisive theological development and fragmented church growth. However, all these good things were not part of the Father’s purposes for Jesus. In fact, Jesus said: “I do nothing on my own but speak just what the Father has taught me. . . . I always do what pleases him” (Jn 8:28-29). Before He died, Jesus could tell the Father that not a single person given Him was lost (Jn 18:9). When He finally gave up His life, Jesus proclaimed that His messianic mission was completed: “It is finished” (Jn 19:30). Jesus certainly did not have the time to do all that we would have liked Him to do, but He most definitely had the time to do what God the Father appointed for Him to do. The things Jesus left undone were left for others to do, with the help of the Holy Spirit.

The Holy Spirit is very much active and present in the world, even though we often think He is absent because He is operating behind the scenes. The Spirit’s work of preparing the stage and getting the main actors, we Christians, to play our part could be done in a more systematic and efficient way. If whenever a fixed number of Christians prayed a model prayer for a certain number of hours, the Spirit could effect a certain number of conversions and scale of revival, we would have come to some sort of “working arrangement.” Then we could hold seminars worldwide for all Christians to adopt this method and voila, the Mission would be accomplished in no time. Somehow though, as much as we are waiting for the Spirit to burst into the scene and take centre-stage, it seems the Spirit is waiting for us to be ready, not passively waiting, but walking with us in the process of getting us ready. Perhaps, in a sense, we are the work—not merely the means, but part of the end: the Kingdom of God.

The Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—appear to have the same attitude towards time: an unhurried pace, a sharp focus on the real mission at hand, and patience with the workers. Jesus, the most visible person of the Trinity, lived His life focussed on what the Father wanted Him to do and was given both sufficient time and appropriate timing to accomplish His mission. If, therefore, our lives are aligned with the Kingdom and we are acting in response to God’s call, then there will always be enough time to fulfil God’s priorities and a right time to do it.[8] In short, we will be “[d]oing God’s ministry in God’s time.”[9]

This does not mean we do not plan, but instead, we plan with discernment. We need to discern what God has called us to do and what season of our lives we are in. Then we can respond to requests appropriately. “Making the most of every opportunity”[10] does not mean cramming as much as we can into our schedules. Rather, it means being serendipitously attentive for opportunities, as they present themselves, to respond appropriately as ambassadors of Christ’s Kingdom.[11] If we are serious about being available, we need to plan for it by scheduling our time loosely. That goes against the grain of what time management is all about—packing it in. But, just as we redeem our time for God’s Kingdom, we need to redeem our time management as well.

One helpful exercise is to take off our watches for a day. Initially, without a watch, we may feel disoriented, less competent, or even dysfunctional. But beyond that, there is the wonderful experience of the natural flow of time, uninterrupted by watching the watch. Once we realize the benefits, we may want to schedule “watch-off” times: perhaps an evening after work, a leisurely weekend, or a public holiday. There is not too much that we can pack into a schedule without a watch, but some wonderful kingdom opportunities may turn up.

As we begin to live this kingdom-oriented timestyle, our lives begin to be somewhat disorganized, certainly less efficient, and worst of all, inconvenient. Take a small snapshot of Jesus’ life and the same adjectives could be applied to Him; but take the full view of His entire life and we see a beautiful, coherent tapestry of the focussed life accomplishing a great mission. This should give us courage. By and large, the societal timestyle subverts our personal attempts to redeem time. We Christians need to remember that it is the Holy Spirit that enables us to live the Kingdom life in Kingdom time:

There is a time for everything,
and a season for every activity under heaven:[12]
a time to put on a watch and a time to take it off,
a time to plan and a time to let things happen.
For every moment and all eternity belongs to God,
and He appoints the time for every good work of His Kingdom.


Copyright © 2002 Wan Phek How. All rights reserved.


Notes

  1. Robert Banks, “Watch,” in The Complete Book of Everyday Christianiy, eds. Robert Banks and R. Paul Stevens (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1997), 1100.
  2. Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology (New York: Knopf, 1992; Toronto: Vintage Books, 1993), 27.
  3. Banks, 1100.
  4. Richard Biernacki, “Time Cents: The Monetization of the Workday in Comparative Perspective,” in Nowhere: Space, Time and Modernity, eds. Roger Friedland and Deirdre Boden (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994), 61.
  5. Ibid, 63.
  6. Norbert Elias, Time: An Essay (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 1.
  7. Our standard hours, minutes, and seconds are not necessarily God-given. They could well be dehumanising, mathematical abstractions we force upon ourselves in a scientific, technocratic culture.
  8. William T. McConnell, The Gift of Time (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1983), 89.
  9. Ibid., 88.
  10. Eph 5:16; Col 4:5
  11. Ibid., 76.
  12. Ecc 3:1

Bibliography
Banks, Robert. “Watch.” In The Complete Book of Everyday Christianity, eds. Robert Banks and R. Paul Stevens, 1100-1102. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1997.

Biernacki, Richard. “Time Cents: The Monetization of the Workday in Comparative Perspective.” In Nowhere: Space, Time and Modernity, eds. Roger Friedland and Deirdre Boden, 61-94. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994.

Elias, Norbert. Time: An Essay. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

Grudin, Robert. Time and the Art of Living. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1982.

McConnell, William T. The Gift of Time. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1983.

Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Knopf, 1992; Toronto: Vintage Books, 1993.

Christians Should be the Most Decisive People in the World
by Wan Phek How

Christians should be the most decisive people in the world. When confronted with such a proposition, many Christians may disagree because in their experience this does not seem to be the case. In practice, Christians are perhaps the most indecisive people in the world. As the argument is fertile ground fraught with possibilities for misunderstanding, first let us come to terms with the word decisive. Here, the word decisive is used in the sense of “having the power or quality of deciding,” as defined in the Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. This article does not deal with the question of how Christians should decide, or whether Christians are better decision-makers than non-Christians, nor does it downplay the necessary rigour in the process of coming to a decision. Rather this paper argues that Christians who believe in a wonderful God, instead of shirking from risky, hair-splitting, difficult decisions, are greatly empowered and emboldened to dare to decide.

Why are Christians so indecisive in practice? The answer is due, in no small part, to the belief that God has a wonderful plan for every Christian. Like an archer targeting the bull’s-eye, the Christian aims to walk in the “centre of God’s will.”[1] If such is the case, the onus of decision-making lies with God. In fact, decisions would have already been cast-in-stone in God’s plan. The task of the Christian, then, is to find God’s will and act on it. Thus the energy of the Christian is diverted from facing the decision to discovering God’s will. Instead of daring to decide, the Christian holds back, frozen in indecision.

Does the Bible present God as having a fixed, inflexible blueprint or a directed, yet fluid purpose? According to R. Paul Stevens: “It is a myth and misunderstanding that God has a wonderful plan for your life; God has something better—a wonderful purpose (Eph 1:9) … The difference between a plan and a purpose is like the difference between a blueprint and a stream that carries people along even though they may make adjustments along the way.”[2]

Adam and Eve were given the freedom to eat from any tree in the Garden of Eden except the tree of knowledge of good and evil (Ge 2:16-17). They were given the freedom to choose within the bounds of God’s revealed will. According to Luther, the will of God is found in loving God and one’s neighbour.[3] These are the two greatest commandments and we can think of them as the two banks of the stream of God’s will. As long as our decisions lie within the bounds of these two commandments, we are flowing with God’s purposes.

Another factor that hampers the Christian’s decisiveness is a narrow view of God. If, like the one-talent man in the Parable of the Talents (Mt 25:14-30), “we have a restricted and negative view of God,”[4] we may be too fearful to take any initiative for fear of failure and end up doing nothing. However, “if we view God correctly as generous and forgiving, we will take risks”[5] and be emboldened to venture forth. For if we fail, we know that God is gracious and may likely give us another try, whereas if we do not act, we are certain to be condemned as the “wicked, lazy servant” (Mt 25:26).

Abraham, the father of faith, viewed God as gracious and generous. Hence Abraham boldly took the initiative to negotiate with God, not once but five times, to spare Sodom and Gomorrah (Ge 18:20-33). David knew God to be merciful. Thus after God had transferred David’s death sentence to the son Bathsheba had borne to him, David fasted and pleaded with God for the child’s life (2Sa 12:13-22). David would not have dared to do that had he thought of God as a cruel disciplinarian, who might well have transferred the death sentence back to David.

Thus the Christian has the freedom to act within God’s revealed will and is emboldened to act decisively by an enlarged view of God. However, the Christian in his actions “has not to decide simply between right and wrong and between good and evil, but between right and right and between wrong and wrong.”[6] Choosing between right and wrong should be relatively straightforward for a Christian who knows God’s moral will as revealed in the Bible. Choosing between right and right, and between wrong and wrong usually gets Christians into a quandary.

In the former, choosing the best option from two or more good options requires discernment.[7] What affects decisiveness in spiritual discernment is the posture adopted: passive or active. The “blueprint model” of God’s will encourages a passive posture of waiting and seeking God’s perfect will. At the other end of the spectrum, decision-making through the “way of wisdom” promotes an active posture. After all, there is no wrong answer; any option is good. So, we ask for wisdom then decide, and God works with us to fulfil his purposes. In the middle of the spectrum, the “discipline of discernment” advocates an intentional approach to decision-making while adopting a passive listening posture.[8] The “blueprint model” has already been critiqued earlier on. Yet, while “there is no place in the New Testament where we are taught to seek a special revelation,”[9] we should be open to divine guidance if it comes. As long as we understand God’s will to be a purpose rather than a plan, whatever variant model of guidance we practice in reality, we will be leaning towards an active posture.

Therefore, in decision-making, the Christian is free to choose, emboldened to act, and adopts an active posture, but how can a Christian be decisive when choosing between two wrong options? For Helmut Thielicke,

The phrase [of Martin Luther’s] ‘sin boldly, but believe and rejoice in Christ even more boldly’ … sums up what should be the Christian’s attitude when faced with a difficult moral dilemma. The Christian should acknowledge the sinfulness which pertains to either option, but nevertheless feel emboldened to act, confessing his sin and secure in the promise of God’s forgiveness.[10]

When impaled on the horns of a dilemma, we often fall back on moral principles, ethical codes, and decision-making models; but when these fail us, we should be guided by love for God and neighbour. Undergirded by love, the Christian should “be ready to incur guilt for the sake of the brother” and “dare to act and surrender the deed to God.”[11] In the face of nazism, Bonhoeffer participated in a failed plot to assassinate Hitler, for which he was executed. In Scripture, Rahab decided to lie and boldly concealed the spies in Jericho (Jos 2:1-6), and it was credited to her as righteousness, and she emerged in the “hall of fame” of faith in Hebrews 11:31.

There is no one correct way of responding to dilemmas. In 1 Kings 17-19, Elijah and Obadiah pursued two different strategies in resisting King Ahab.[12] Elijah openly confronted Ahab’s god Baal, winning a contest against the prophets of Baal, but had to flee for his life. Obadiah, while in charge of Ahab’s household, successfully hid and fed a hundred of God’s prophets. With or without knowing it, they worked together to resist Ahab’s regime, swimming along the stream of God’s purpose.

However we respond, we are certainly not to adopt the “Gamaliel Principle” of “taking up an ambiguous middle ground” and “putting off a final decision to some unspecified point in the future.”[13] We cannot fail to respond, like Adam did by his silence when Eve was tempted by the Serpent: “She [Eve] also gave some [fruit] to her husband [Adam], who was with her” (Ge 3:6). All along, Adam was with Eve during her conversation with the Serpent, but he remained silent.[14] Adam’s silence betrayed his indecisiveness, neither saying yes or no to the temptation. At the very least, Adam could have said, “Wait. ” Instead, by failing to decide, Adam inadvertently decided to fail.

Above all, when faced with a dilemma, Christians have to decide; God expects us to decide. In order to become Christians, we had to make the decision at some point to repent and follow Christ. Joshua challenged the Israelites to “choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve” (Jos 24:15) and expected an answer that very same day, before the sun went down.[15] When Jesus asked his disciples, “Who do you say that I am?” (Mt 16:15) he expected an immediate answer. Peter decided: “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God” (Mt 16: 16). Adam’s indecisiveness led to the Fall; Christ’s decisiveness led him to the Cross; our decisiveness leads us back to God.

In conclusion, since we have such a great, gracious, forgiving God who has given us the freedom to act according to his wonderful purpose, and expects us to exercise that freedom with boldness and initiative, we Christians really should be the most decisive people in the world.


Copyright © 2004 Wan Phek How. All rights reserved.


Notes

  1. Garry Friesen, Decision Making and the Will of God (Portland: Multnomah Press, 1980), 36.
  2. R. Paul Stevens, “Guidance,” in Robert Banks and R. Paul Stevens (eds.), The Complete Book of Everyday Christianity (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1997), 471.
  3. Gary D. Babcock, The Way of Life: A Theology of Christian Vocation (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998), 83.
  4. R. Paul Stevens, “Talents,” in The Complete Book, 1002.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Ethics, trans. Neville Horton Smith (London: SCM Press, 1955), 249.
  7. Gordon T. Smith, Listening to God in Times of Choice: The Art of Discerning God’s Will (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1997), 28.
  8. Ibid., 69-70.
  9. Bruce Waltke, Finding the Will of God: A Pagan Notion? (Gresham, Oregon: Vision House, 1995), 38.
  10. Richard Higginson, Dilemmas: A Christian Approach to Moral Decision Making (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1988), 131.
  11. Marvin Bergman, “Teaching Ethics and Moral Decision-Making in the Light of Dietrich Bonhoeffer,” in A. J. Klassen (ed.), A Bonhoeffer Legacy: Essays in Understanding (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981), 135.
  12. Higginson, 135.
  13. David Mills, “The Gamaliel Principle,” Touchstone: A Journal of Ecumenical Orthodoxy, 11 (1998): 5.
  14. Selwyn Hughes, in a marriage enrichment seminar (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1997).
  15. Charles B. Bugg, “Joshua 24:14-18—The Choice,” Review and Expositor, 95 (1998): 283.